1. (40 pts total) Extreme challenges to an animal’s physiology allow us to explore and better understand the function of systems in the body. Please address the following questions regarding the initial reflexive changes (before acclimatization) that occur in response to ascent to altitude.
a. (14 pts) Outline the initial global reflexes that occur in response to the low PO2 at high altitude. Be sure to include all components of the reflex arcs for cardiovascular and respiratory systems.
b. (6 pts) Compare these global reflexes to local reflexes.
c. (8 pts) How do the global and local reflexes address the maximization of the ventilation : perfusion ratio? Map your answers to (a) and (b) onto this concept.
d. (12 pts) For each of the changes that you mentioned in your answers to (a) and (b), discuss the tradeoffs. What are the downsides to these responses for the cardiovascular and gas exchange functions of the body?
To help focus your thoughts, as part of your answer to (d) be sure to hit on the big picture ideas of:
i. Flow of blood and function in the CV system
ii. Gas exchange in the lungs
iii. Gas carriage in the blood
iv. Picking up/dropping off of gases at the tissues
v. Impact on hydration and blood volume
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