Biology 102 Week 4 Chapter questions (Chapters 13-17)
1. What is cytogenetics?
2. What are the basic parts of a chromosome? What is the main purpose of each part?
3. What is a karyotype? What characteristics of chromosomes do karyotypes display?
4. From which cells are chromosomes typically visualized?
5. Describe how amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling directly reveal fetal chromosomes.
6. Describe indirect ways to detect abnormal chromosome numbers.
7. How many chromosomes are in a normal human karyotype?
8. What is a polyploidy? How can polyploidy occur?
9. Explain how nondisjunction generates aneuploids.
10. Compare the severities of monosomies and trisomies.
11. Compare the severities of sex chromosome and autosomal aneuploidy.
12. Describe the most common aneuploidy conditions.
13. Knowing what you know about the X and Y chromosomes, why does YO not exist?
14. Explain how a chromosomal mosaic arises.
15. Which chromosome rearrangements can cause deletions and duplications?
16. Distinguish between the two types of translocations.
17. What must occur for a translocation or inversion to cause symptoms?
18. How do isochromosomes and ring chromosomes arise?
19. What is uniparental disomy? What are the two ways that uniparental disomy can arise?
20. What are two ways that uniparental disomy can cause disease?
21. What is a biological population?
22. Define the terms gene pool, allele frequency, genotypic frequency and phenotypic frequency.
23. What is the difference between microevolution and macroevolution?
24. What are the five factors that can change genotype frequencies?
25. Describe the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. Why do the frequencies of the recessive allele not decrease over time?
26. In the expression p+q=1, what do p and q represent?
27. In the expression p2
=1, what do p2
, 2pq, and q2 represent?
28. If the frequency of the dominant allele is 0.7, what is the frequency of the recessive allele?
29. What conditions must be true in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
30. How does the Hardy-Weinberg equation apply to X-linked traits?
31. Briefly describe the technique of DNA profiling. What are the practical applications of this technique?
32. How does the concept of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium enable interpretation of DNA profiles?
33. What type of DNA sequence is used to construct DNA profiles?
34. What type of DNA can be used if the nuclear DNA is highly degraded?
35. How can researchers improve the accuracy of the interpretation of DNA profiles?
36. What is non-random mating? Why is human mating usually not random?
37. Why are some traits, such as blood type, in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
38. What are the effects of consanguinity and endogamy on population genetic structure?
39. How does migration alter allele frequencies in a population?
40. What are clines? Name two factors that can create great differences in allele frequencies.
41. What is genetic drift?
42. Explain how founder effects and population bottlenecks amplify the effects of genetic drift.
43. How does mutation increase genetic variation in a way that crossing over and independent assortment do not?
44. How does mutation alter allele frequencies?
45. What is genetic load? How can a harmful recessive allele persist in a population?
46. What is natural selection? Contrast positive selection and negative selection.
47. How does natural selection differ from artificial selection?
48. Why do purebred dogs suffer from so many genetic diseases?
49. How do antiviral and antibacterial drugs select for resistant variants?
50. Explain how balanced polymorphism maintains an inherited disease.
51. What is eugenics? Distinguish between positive and negative eugenics.
52. How do eugenics and medical genetics differ?
53. Describe the australopithecines and early Homo.
54. Describe the three known types of archaic humans.
55. What can we learn from comparing genomes of modern indigenous peoples to our own?
56. What is the basis of comparing DNA sequences, protein sequences, chromosome banding patterns, and genome
sequences to learn about origins and evolution?
57. What types of DNA sequences are subject to natural selection? What do we mean when we say that a sequence is
58. What is the basis of the molecular clock?
59. How are mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome sequences used to trace lineages?
60. What is admixture?
61. Who does “mitochondrial Eve” represent?
62. What is the “out of Africa” hypothesis?
63. How did humans get to the Americas?
64. What can we learn from ancestry testing?
65. How does the human genome differ from the genomes of other animals, in a general sense?
66. What are some genes that provide traits that are uniquely human?
67. How do we influence our own future evolution?
68. What is the overall function of the immune system?
69. How are genes involved in the human immune system?
70. What is an antigen?
71. How can blood transfusions cause an immune response?
72. What are the three major parts of the immune response?
73. How does innate immunity differ from adaptive immunity?
74. What are antibodies and how do they function?
75. How can the human body create a limitless amount of antibodies with a limited number of antibody genes?
76. What do Helper T cells do? What do cytotoxic T cells do?
77. What are some causes of inherited immune deficiencies?
78. How does HIV lead to AIDS? Why are some people immune to HIV?
79. Explain how the immune system malfunctions in autoimmune disorders.
80. Explain how the immune system malfunctions in allergic reactions.
81. How does a vaccine protect against an infectious disease?
82. How are monoclonal antibodies and cytokines used clinically?
83. Distinguish between autograft, isograft, allograft and xenograft transplants. What is done to make allograft and
xenograft transplants more successful?
84. Why is an understanding of the genome sequence of a pathogen important?